linear function là gì

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In mathematics, the term linear function refers to tướng two distinct but related notions:[1]

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  • In calculus and related areas, a linear function is a function whose graph is a straight line, that is, a polynomial function of degree zero or one.[2] For distinguishing such a linear function from the other concept, the term affine function is often used.[3]
  • In linear algebra, mathematical analysis,[4] and functional analysis, a linear function is a linear map.[5]

As a polynomial function[edit]

Graphs of two linear functions.

In calculus, analytic geometry and related areas, a linear function is a polynomial of degree one or less, including the zero polynomial (the latter not being considered to tướng have degree zero).

When the function is of only one variable, it is of the form

where a and b are constants, often real numbers. The graph of such a function of one variable is a nonvertical line. a is frequently referred to tướng as the slope of the line, and b as the intercept.

If a > 0 then the gradient is positive and the graph slopes upwards.

If a < 0 then the gradient is negative and the graph slopes downwards.

For a function of any finite number of variables, the general formula is

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and the graph is a hyperplane of dimension k.

A constant function is also considered linear in this context, as it is a polynomial of degree zero or is the zero polynomial. Its graph, when there is only one variable, is a horizontal line.

In this context, a function that is also a linear map (the other meaning) may be referred to tướng as a homogeneous linear function or a linear sườn. In the context of linear algebra, the polynomial functions of degree 0 or 1 are the scalar-valued affine maps.

As a linear map[edit]

The integral of a function is a linear map from the vector space of integrable functions to tướng the real numbers.

In linear algebra, a linear function is a map f between two vector spaces s.t.

Here a denotes a constant belonging to tướng some field K of scalars (for example, the real numbers) and x and y are elements of a vector space, which might be K itself.

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In other terms the linear function preserves vector addition and scalar multiplication.

Some authors use "linear function" only for linear maps that take values in the scalar field;[6] these are more commonly called linear forms.

The "linear functions" of calculus qualify as "linear maps" when (and only when) f(0, ..., 0) = 0, or, equivalently, when the constant b equals zero in the one-degree polynomial above. Geometrically, the graph of the function must pass through the origin.

See also[edit]

  • Homogeneous function
  • Nonlinear system
  • Piecewise linear function
  • Linear approximation
  • Linear interpolation
  • Discontinuous linear map
  • Linear least squares


  1. ^ "The term linear function means a linear sườn in some textbooks and an affine function in others." Vaserstein 2006, p. 50-1
  2. ^ Stewart 2012, p. 23
  3. ^ A. Kurosh (1975). Higher Algebra. Mir Publishers. p. 214.
  4. ^ T. M. Apostol (1981). Mathematical Analysis. Addison-Wesley. p. 345.
  5. ^ Shores 2007, p. 71
  6. ^ Gelfand 1961


  • Izrail Moiseevich Gelfand (1961), Lectures on Linear Algebra, Interscience Publishers, Inc., Thành Phố New York. Reprinted by Dover, 1989. ISBN 0-486-66082-6
  • Thomas S. Shores (2007), Applied Linear Algebra and Matrix Analysis, Undergraduate Texts in Mathematics, Springer. ISBN 0-387-33195-6
  • James Stewart (2012), Calculus: Early Transcendentals, edition 7E, Brooks/Cole. ISBN 978-0-538-49790-9
  • Leonid N. Vaserstein (2006), "Linear Programming", in Leslie Hogben, ed., Handbook of Linear Algebra, Discrete Mathematics and Its Applications, Chapman and Hall/CRC, chap. 50. ISBN 1-584-88510-6